Hypertext Markup Language

The programming language for building web pages

Hypertext Markup Language is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets and scripting languages such as JavaScript.
Developed by: WHATWG
Type of format: Document file format
Latest release: HTML5
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Hypertext Preprocessor

The programming language for general-purpose scripting

PHP is a popular general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to web development. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994; the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group.
Implementation language: C (primarily; some components C++)
Developer: The PHP Development Team, Zend Technologies
Typing discipline: Dynamic, weak since version 7.0: Gradual
Designed by: Rasmus Lerdorf
OS: Unix-like, Windows
Paradigm: Imperative, functional, object-oriented, procedural, reflective
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Cascading Style Sheets

The programming language for styling web pages

Cascading Style Sheets is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML. CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.
Developed by: Håkon Wium Lie; Bert Bos; World Wide Web Consortium
Type of format: Style sheet language
Initial release: December 17, 1996
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Structured Query Language

The programming language for managing data held in a relational database

SQL is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system, or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system.
Developer: ISO/IEC
Developed by: ISO/IEC
Standard: ISO/IEC 9075
Typing discipline: Static, strong
Latest release: SQL:2016
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The programming language that adds interactivity to your website

JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. JavaScript is high-level, often just-in-time compiled, and multi-paradigm. It has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.
First appeared: December 4, 1995;
Stable release: ECMAScript 2019 / June 2019;
Preview release: ECMAScript 2020
Typing discipline: Dynamic, duck
Designed by: Brendan Eich
Paradigm: event-driven, functional, imperative
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Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python’s design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace.
Python Highlights
Python is a general-purpose, versatile and modern programming language. It’s great as a first language because it is concise and easy to read.

Typing discipline: Duck, dynamic, gradual (since 3.5)
Stable release: 3.8.2 / 24 February 2020;
Preview release: 3.9.0a4 / 26 February 2020;
Designed by: Guido van Rossum
Paradigm: Multi-paradigm: functional, imperative, object-oriented, reflective
Filename extensions: .py,.pyi,.pyc,.pyd,.pyo (prior to 3.5),.pyw,.pyz (since 3.5)

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jQuery is a JavaScript library designed to simplify HTML DOM tree traversal and manipulation, as well as event handling, CSS animation, and Ajax. It is free, open-source software using the permissive MIT License. As of May 2019, jQuery is used by 73% of the 10 million most popular websites.
Jquery Highlights

The jQuery library contains the following features: HTML/DOM manipulation; CSS manipulation; HTML event methods; Effects and animations; AJAX; Utilities.

License: MIT
Stable release: 3.4.1 / (May 1, 2019; 9 months ago)
Initial release date: 26 August 2006
Original author: John Resig
Written in: JavaScript
Size: 30–263 KB

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Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Java Highlights

Java is powering the innovation behind our digital world. Harness this potential with Java resources for student coders, hobbyists, developers, and IT leaders..

Developer: Sun Microsystems
First appeared: May 23, 1995;
Typing discipline: Static, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
Stable release: Java SE 13 / September 17, 2019; 5 months ago
Designed by: James Gosling
Paradigm: Multi-paradigm: generic, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, reflective

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Bootstrap is a free and open-source CSS framework directed at responsive, mobile-first front-end web development. It contains CSS- and JavaScript-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation, and other interface components.
Bootstrap Highlights
Bootstrap is the most popular HTML, CSS, and JS library in the world.

Original author(s): Mark Otto, Jacob Thornton
License: MIT License (Apache License 2.0 prior to 3.1.0)
Stable release: 4.4.1 / November 28, 2019;
Initial release date: 19 August 2011
Platform: Web platform
Written in: HTML, Cascading Style Sheets, Less (v3), Sass (v4), JavaScript

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C++ is a high-level, general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”.

C++ Highlights

C++ is a powerful general-purpose programming language. It can be used to develop operating systems, browsers, games, and so on.

Preview release: C++20
Stable release: C++17 (ISO/IEC 14882:2017) / 1 December 2017;
Typing discipline: Static, nominative, partially inferred
Developer: ISO/IEC JTC1 (Joint Technical Committee 1) / SC22 (Subcommittee 22) / WG21 (Working Group 21)
Designed by: Bjarne Stroustrup
Written in: C

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AngularJS is a JavaScript-based open-source front-end web framework mainly maintained by Google and by a community of individuals and corporations to address many of the challenges encountered in developing single-page applications.
Angularjs Highlights

AngularJS is what HTML would have been, had it been designed for building web-apps. Declarative templates with data-binding, MVW, MVVM, MVC.

Initial release: October 20, 2010;
Developed by: Google
Stable release: 1.7.9 / November 19, 2019; 3 months ago
License: MIT License
Written in: JavaScript
Platform: JavaScript engine

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C# is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented, and component-oriented programming disciplines.

C# Highlights

C# (C-Sharp) is a programming language developed by Microsoft that runs on the . NET Framework. C# is used to develop web apps, desktop apps, mobile apps, games and much more..

Stable release: 8.0 / September 23, 2019;
Developer: Microsoft
Designed by: Microsoft Corporation
Typing discipline: static, dynamic, strong, safe, nominative, partially inferred
Platform: Common Language Infrastructure
Family: List of C-family programming languages

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Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, JavaScript runtime environment that executes JavaScript code outside of a web browser.
Node.Js Highlights

Node.js® is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine.

License: MIT license
Initial release: May 27, 2009;
Original author: Ryan Dahl
Stable release: 13.8.0 / February 6, 2020; 20 days ago
Operating system: Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows, SmartOS, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, IBM AIX
Written in: C, C++, JavaScript

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ASP.NET is an open-source server-side web-application framework designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages developed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, applications and services.
ASP Highlights

ASP stands for Active Server Pages. ASP is a development framework for building web pages. ASP supports many different development models: Classic ASP. ASP.NET Web Forms.

Written in: .NET languages
Developed by: Microsoft Corporation
Initial release: January 5, 2002;
License: Apache License 2.0
Operating system: Microsoft Windows, Linux, macOS
Stable release: 4.8 (18 April 2019)

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React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It is maintained by Facebook and a community of individual developers and companies. React can be used as a base in the development of single-page or mobile applications.
React Highlights

React makes it painless to create interactive UIs. Design simple views for each state in your application, and React will efficiently update and render just the right components when your data changes.

Original author(s): Jordan Walke
Initial release: May 29, 2013;
License: MIT License
Stable release: 16.12.0 / November 14, 2019;
Developer(s): Facebook and community
Platform: Web platform

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The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
Raspberry Pi Highlights

Raspberry Pi is a very cheap computer that runs Linux, but it also provides a set of GPIO (general purpose input/output) pins that allow you to control electronic components for physical computing and explore the Internet of Things (IoT).

Operating system: FreeBSD; Linux; NetBSD; OpenBSD; Plan 9; RISC OS; Windows 10 ARM64; Windows 10 IoT Core
Power: 5V 3A (for full power delivery to USB devices)
CPU: 1.5 GHz 64/32-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A72
Memory: 1, 2, or 4 GB LPDDR4-3200 RAM
Release date: 24 February 2012; (Original); 24 June 2019;
Storage: MicroSDHC slot

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JavaScript Object Notation is an open standard file format, and data interchange format, that uses human-readable text to store and transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs and array data types.
Json Highlights

JSON is text, written with JavaScript object notation. Exchanging Data. When exchanging data between a browser and a server, the data can only be text.

Filename extension: .json
Internet media type: application/json
Type code: TEXT
Type of format: Data interchange Extended from JavaScript
Standard: STD 90 (RFC 8259), ECMA-404, ISO/IEC 21778:2017
Open format?: Yes

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Ajax is a set of web development techniques using many web technologies on the client side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send and retrieve data from a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page.
Ajax Highlights

AJAX allows web pages to be updated asynchronously by exchanging data with a web server behind the scenes.

First appeared March 1999
Filename extensions .js
File formats JavaScript
Influenced by JavaScript and XML

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Sass is a style sheet language initially designed by Hampton Catlin and developed by Natalie Weizenbaum. After its initial versions, Weizenbaum and Chris Eppstein have continued to extend Sass with SassScript, a scripting language used in Sass files.
Sass Highlights

CSS with superpowers. Sass is the most mature, stable, and powerful professional grade CSS extension language in the world.

Designed by Hampton Catlin
Developer Natalie Weizenbaum, Chris Eppstein
First appeared November 28, 2006;
Stable release 3.5.6 / March 23, 2018;
Typing discipline Dynamic
OS Cross-platform
License MIT License
Filename extensions .sass, .scss
Major implementations Dart, Ruby
Influenced by CSS (both “indented” and SCSS), YAML and Haml, (indented syntax)Less (SCSS)
Influenced Less, Stylus, Tritium, Bootstrap (v4+)

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Extensible Markup Language is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The World Wide Web Consortium’s XML 1.0 Specification of 1998 and several other related specifications—all of them free open standards—define XML.
XML Highlights

XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. It is a text-based markup language derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). XML tags identify the data and are used to store and organize the data, rather than specifying how to display it like HTML tags, which are used to display the data.

Filename extension .xml
Internet media type

  1. application/xml
  2. text/xml

Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) public.xml
UTI conformation public.text
Developed by World Wide Web Consortium
Type of format Markup language
Extended from SGML
Extended to Numerous languages, including XHTMLRSSAtomKML


  1. 1.0 (Fifth Edition)
    (November 26, 2008;)
  2. 1.1 (Second Edition)
    (August 16, 2006;)

Open format? Yes

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In computing, an icon is a pictogram or ideogram displayed on a computer screen in order to help the user navigate a computer system. The icon itself is a quickly comprehensible symbol of a software tool, function, or a data file, accessible on the system and is more like a traffic sign than a detailed illustration of the actual entity it represents.
Icons Highlights

Flaticon: 2625500+ Free vector icons in SVG, PSD, PNG, EPS format or as ICON FONT. Thousands of free icons in the largest database of free vector icons!
icons8: Designers, download the design stuff for free — icons, photos, UX illustrations, and music for your videos.
iconfinder: More than 15002 free icons in one place. Download all the free icons in PNG or ICO format.

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Graphics are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain. In contemporary usage, it includes a pictorial representation of data, as in c manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software.
Graphics Highlights

A graphic is an image or visual representation of an object. Therefore, computer graphics are simply images displayed on a computer screen. Graphics are often contrasted with text, which is comprised of characters, such as numbers and letters, rather than images.

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Color, or colour, is the characteristic of visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of photoreceptor cells by electromagnetic radiation.
Color Highlights

There are three primary colours; red, blue, and yellow. Primary colours are hues which can be mixed to create all other colours.

Color is the aspect of things that is caused by differing qualities of light being reflected or emitted by them. To see color, you have to have light. When light shines on an object some colors bounce off the object and others are absorbed by it.
Color is the property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way it reflects or emits light.

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